Research Results

Quack Quack and his creator

Two articles will describe Phase I of the IF Project. The first is more general and descriptive, providing background about research into IFs, developmental literature, and implications for religious development:

Wigger, J. B. “See-through knowing: Learning from Children and their invisible friends.” Journal of Childhood and Religion, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (May, 2011). This is an free, scholarly online journal:

A second article is Wigger, J. B., Paxson, K., and Ryan, L. “What Do Invisible Friends Know?: Imaginary Companions, God, and Theory of Mind.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Vol. 23, Issue 1 (January, 2013). This article is much more technical, providing research methods, descriptions of the cognitive tests administered, and a statistical analysis of the results.