Around the World


Are IFs common around the world? The IF (Invisible Friend) Project involved interviewing children in Louisville, Kentucky. Thanks to a research grant from the John Templeton Foundation, the Project went global.




We have interviewed children in other countries in order to provide some cross-cultural analysis.

We went to rural villages in Western Kenya, Southern Malawi, to

rural and urban areas in both Nepal and the Dominican Republic.

In Kenya we interviewed over 100 children and found that 21% of the children said they had a “friend nobody else could see.”  In Malawi, with over 200 children, the number was closer to 25%.  In Nepal, we only found 5 of 100 children with them, while in the DR about a third of nearly 100 children had them. More about this study will come, in both article and book form. See Results/Publications page.100_3436