Quack Quack and his creator

So far the following articles from the project have been published. More are under review. I am also working on a book about the subject.

Wigger, J. Bradley. “See-through knowing: Learning from Children and their invisible friends.” Journal of Childhood and Religion, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (May, 2011). This is an free, scholarly online journal:

Wigger, J. Bradley; Paxson, Katrina, and Ryan, Lacey. “What Do Invisible Friends Know?: Imaginary Companions, God, and Theory of Mind.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Vol. 23, Issue 1 (January, 2013). This article is much more technical, providing research methods, descriptions of the cognitive tests administered, and a statistical analysis of the results. article

Wigger, J. Bradley. “Children’s Theory of God’s Mind,” Religious Education (Vol. 111, no. 3), 2016. Explores why theory-of-mind research matters to the field of religious education. A limited number of copies (eprints) are available here: Link

Wigger, J. Bradley. “Invisible Friends in Friends across Four Countries: Kenya, Malawi, Nepal, and the Dominican Republic,” International Journal of Psychology, 2017. Compares the prevalence rates between the four countries. Significant differences were found between three of the four samples. This piece is under a distribution embargo until 2019, but here is a link to the journal: Link